Dark spots or skin blemishes are very common issues in every type of skin. In most cases it caused by excessive exposure to UV rays over time. This occurs because the sun’s rays stimulate the production of melanin, which is the pigment that gives skin color. However, hormonal changes, the use of medications and other factors that act on melanocytes (melanin-producing cells) give rise to the appearance of various spots on the face and body.
Learn how to identify and how to remove the 8 most common types of skin blemishes:
1. Dark spots on the face
Melasma is a dark spot that appears on the face, near the cheeks and the forehead, being very common during menopause due to hormonal changes that occur in women. These alterations irritate the melanocytes that leave dark or hyperpigmented spots on certain areas of the face. These usually get worse when the person has prolonged sun exposure without protection.
Melasma is a dermatological condition that has no cure but can be maintained in remission as long as the person has the necessary care and follows the doctor’s instructions.
– Apply daily sunscreen with SPF of 30 or more every 4 hours.
– Avoid prolonged exposure to the sun, as well as sources of heat, such as entering hot cars parked in the sun or using the oven.
– Use depigmenting or lightening creams such as hydroquinone only at night and the treatment time will be established according to the dermatologist’s instructions.
– Use antioxidants such as Niacinamide and vitamin C are an excellent option to apply overnight.
– Perform professional treatments (chemical peels and laser).
2. Dark spots caused by the sun
Sunspots are known as sun lentigines or “freckles“, they occur more frequently in people with light or brown skin, who stay long exposed to the sun without using sunscreen. The most affected parts of the body are the face, neck, hands, arms, and legs although its appearance is more common after 40 years of age, they can also arise in younger people who have had excessive sun exposure.
– Apply daily sunscreen with SPF of 30 or more every 4 hours.
– Avoid prolonged exposure to the sun.
– Use depigmenting or lightening creams such as hydroquinone or containing lactic acid overnight and the treatment time will be established or as directed by the dermatologist.
– Use antioxidants such as Niacinamide, vitamin C, aloe vera are an excellent option to apply overnight.
– Apply toner that contain between its ingredients rice water and rose water.
– Perform professional treatments (chemical peels, laser, pulsed light, dermapen).
– The clearest and most superficial ones can be eliminated with the measures explained above.
– When there is a greater number of spots it is recommended to go to the dermatologist to indicate the most suitable products. This is important because when the person has many spots of this type or new spots appear irregularly or in moles, the person is at greater risk of developing skin cancer and the doctor can assess whether the spots he has are at risk or not.
– Proper treatment will be exposed and indicated by the attending physician.
3. Red spots on the skin
Dermatitis or eczema that manifests through red spots on the skin may be the result of an allergic reaction by eating certain types of food (shrimp, strawberries, and peanuts), the application of certain beauty products such as creams, fragrances or cosmetics, or to use objects that are in contact with the skin such as bracelets or necklaces.
Subsequently, the red spots may change color and become brown spots that itch, have a dry appearance and if it worsens, slight bleeding may occur due to the constant scratching.
– Use natural products based on chamomile and aloe vera to soothe redness and itching.
– Apply cold compresses on the affected area.
– It may be indicated to apply a corticosteroid cream 2 times a day until the symptoms diminish.
– It is recommended to consult a dermatologist to identify the cause of the allergy so that contact with what caused it can be avoided.
4. Pityriasis Versicolor
Pityriasis Versicolor or also known as “beach fungus”, arises due to an infection caused by a fungus that causes the appearance of several small round white spots, located on the back, and as the days go by it spreads to shoulders, chest, and arms.
The cause of this mycosis is a fungus that lives in the human skin, in a controlled quantity, but when the immune system of the person is compromised or weak, it is common that there is a greater proliferation in the skin, giving rise to mycosis.
– Under medical indications, it is usual for the doctor to indicate applying an antifungal cream on the skin 2 times a day for 3 weeks.
– When the area to be treated is very large and covers the entire back, it may be necessary to take an oral antifungal such as Fluconazole.
5. Dark spots or burn caused by lemon
Phytophotodermatitis is the scientific name of skin lesions caused by lemon. It is enough that the lemon comes into contact with the skin of the person and immediately it is exposed to the sun, what happens next is that the skin with the lemon and the sun react being able to generate a burn or small dark spots on the skin, especially in the hands.
– Wash the skin well, apply a cream with hydroquinone, 3 to 4 times a day.
– Avoid placing products on the affected skin such as perfumes or cosmetics.
– Always use sunscreen on the affected area, so that the treatment is effective.
6. Dark spots of diabetes
Acanthosis nigricans is the scientific name for dark spots that arise around the neck, skin folds, armpits and below the breasts. These spots appear in people who have insulin resistance or diabetes. However, although it is rarer, this type of spot can also arise in people with cancer.
– Because these spots are the result of a basic disease such as diabetes, it is always important to see a doctor who can refer the person to a dermatologist.
– The dermatologist can prescribe depigmenting creams and will identify the cause of Acanthosis nigricans. Also, when it is caused by excess weight, the patient should lose weight as this will facilitate the treatment to unify the skin tone.
Vitiligo is a disease that causes the appearance of white spots on the skin, especially on the face, genitals, elbows, knees, feet, and hands. They can occur at any age and even the specific causes are not known. It is recognized that it can be an autoimmune disease conditioned by some type of genetic alteration. There is also a hereditary component since the existence of a family history (both parents) of this disease is related to a greater probability of suffering from it.
– Consult the dermatologist to start the appropriate treatment according to each particular case.
– Specific treatments applied by the dermatologist (photochemotherapy or PUVA, depigmenting creams).
– It is essential to use sunscreen and reapply every 4 hours because light skin is more likely to develop malignant skin lesions or cancer.
8. Dark spots caused by Acne
Pimple scar is a very common cause of skin blemishes in young teenagers mainly, after severe acne treatment.
– Apply rosehip oil 2 to 3 times a day on the scar, avoiding exposure to the sun.
– Keep the oiliness of the skin controlled with anti-acne treatments.
– When the person no longer has any blackheads or pimples, treatments can be indicated to lighten the skin such as the use of creams with acids, peeling with acids, microneedling and aesthetic treatments such as laser or pulsed light.
Let us know which type of skin blemishes you are most frustrated with and share what treatment you tried to better the condition.